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Historical Summary Print E-mail

Charles DarwinIn year 1838, Charles DARWIN discovered the principle of evolution by natural selection, which states that the species in nature change with time, thus allowing other new species emerge due to the transformation of the existing ones. 

All living beings on the planet still remain because of identical evolutionary processes.  This favors the steady transformation of the biological information described by the morphology, the physiology, and behavior.

During 1856-1862, Gregor MENDEL discovered through rigorous experiments with plants how heredity operates.  He carried out experiments crossing green and yellow pea families, identifying particular descendant types.  So, the researcher was able to formulate two principles derived from his experimental results that were ignored by the science for more than 40 years.

MENDEL’s first principle states that the organisms are determined as a whole by two particles, one coming from the heredity of the mother and the other from the father.  Each particle has the same possibility of transmission when the gametes are formed (ovules and spermatozoids).  These findings are the key to understand how variation is preserved.

ImageIn year 1950, two young biologists at Cambridge University, Francis CRICK and James WATSON, made a discovery that shocked biology.  They deducted the structure of DNA.  Thanks to this finding, we now understand how the information of live is stored at the molecular level and why heredity follows the patterns observed by MENDEL in pea plants.  The contemporary molecular genetics, product of the discovery by WATSON and CRICK, is an intellectual universe that encourages new discoveries of great significance in medicine and agriculture.  Anyway, the trend of this specialty has not changed until now our understanding on how morphology, behavior and consciousness evolve.  Many genes interacting in still-too-complex ways so as to be understood at the molecular level generally shape these features.

Understanding the one-dimensional nature of consciousness is vital for the study of human evolution.  However, thanks to the molecular genetics that joins biology to chemistry and physics, it is possible to reconstruct the evolving history of the human lineage, making these structures intertwine to conceive an indissoluble wholeness, where eidosome, behavior, environment and culture compose the same texture to identify the right order of life.

In year 1960, the neural psychiatrist Alfonso CAYCEDO founds in Barcelona, SPAIN, the research project of sophrology, considering a new science devoted to the rigorous study of the evolution of human consciousness and its existential values.  Since then, this new modality of knowledge conceives consciousness as the force in charge of the integration of the psychophysical structures, aiming to preserve, improve and extend the quality of individual welfare through the recovery of its supporting unity: life.

The contributions by Charles DARWIN, Gregor MENDEL, Francis CRICK, James WATSON and Alfonso CAYCEDO will be a fundamental aid to find a satisfactory answer to how morphology, behavior and consciousness evolve.  Understanding the subtle influence of genes in the molecular organization of these features, and identifying the micro-particles intervening in the identification, processing and coding of the information that describes the evolution of life is a task ineludibly attached to modern science.  Thanks to the investigative perspicacity and consistence, we will find a satisfactory answer to the origin and prognosis of the human lineage.


1.882  Walter Fleming, German biologist, discovers minute microscopic elements that he called “chromosomes”.

1.909 The Dutch scientist Wilhelm Johannsen proposes the term “gene” to identify the hereditary factor discovered by Mendel.

1.915 Thomas Hunt Morgan explains the sequence of the hereditary mechanism, introducing the bases for genetic mapping.

Acido Ribonucleico
1.944 A well-known group of different nationalities finds the molecule that contains the genetic information, at least in bacteria, the RNA.

1.958 The first explorations on sophrology emerge at the Psychiatry Service of the Provincial Hospital of Madrid under the tutorship of Dr. J.J. López Ibor, and the direction of Dr. Alfonso Caycedo.

Alfonso Caycedo
1.961 Caycedo
proposes the integration of new sceneries for research on the structure and function of consciousness as the organizing factor of the psychophysical unit of man, in the city of Vienna in front of the European scientific community.

The recent genetic evidences point out that the last common ancestor to humans and chimpanzees lived about 6 million years ago, explaining at last the purpose of the historical texture of the human race. 

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